People who speak certain languages sometimes have no trouble speaking to others or understand otherswho speak similar languages. That is what mutual intelligibility exactly is. Speakers can understand each other without having to study or make an overly human effort.
Mutual intelligibility of languages – the concept of linguistics indicate the proximity of different languages, saying that they can communicate without additional education or no additional effort It is one of the criteria for assessing distinctiveness language or considered a dialect . Mutual understanding can be asymmetrical , when a representative of one of the languages of the partner understands more than the other. Mutual intelligibility also has a time criterion , together with the development of language moving away or closer to each other , such as Danish and Norwegian ceased to be mutually understood at the beginning of the nineteenth in.
The criteria of mutual intelligibility
Mutual intelligibility of language can take place at different levels:
– from the simplest elements without self- importance , such as phonemes , or sounds, elements that have meaning , such as morphemes and words
– to the level of sentences and texts continuous .
The measure of intelligibility is the percentage of individuals understandable to all presented on a scale from zero to one hundred . Tests of mutual intelligibility is divided into functional tests ( testing comprehension ) and test evaluation / opinion ( exploring feelings ).
The intelligibility can be asymmetric, such as when Portuguese-speakers have an easier time understanding Spanish than Spanish-speakers have when trying to comprehend Portuguese. This intelligibility can also be symmetrical, when both sets of languages can be understood by the other equally.
Mutually intelligible languages usually are of close geographic origin to the other and display very similar grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary. The following are a list of mutually intelligible languages with respect to each other.
The Germanic languages of Afrikaans, Dutch, and Flemish are very similar and its speakers can easily comprehend one another. To a certain extent, people who speak Dutch can understand oral German while Germans find it easier to read Dutch than hear it.
The Scandinavian German languages of Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish are very genetically close. The speakers of the triplet languages can understand each other pretty well, but it had been said that Norwegians have an easier time comprehending both Swedish and Danish than can Danes or Swedes understand the three languages.
Many Slavic Eastern Europeans claim that they speak up to 5 languages, that is because of the high level of mutual intelligibility there is between the Slavic languages. Ukrainian and Belarusian are both rooted to the Russian language and both understand Polish far better than Poles understand Ukrainians and Belarusians. Even more, Poles comprehend the Ukrainian language better than Belarusian because they pronounce words more similarly.
Bulgarian and Macedonian are almost identical despite some differences in pronunciation. Their major difference is in the origin of borrowed words: Bulgarians borrow more from the Russian language and Macedonians borrow more from Serbian and English. Many Bulgarians claim that Macedonian is a “knock off” of Bulgarian, created in 1945.
Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian, and Montegrin are mutually intelligible as well, all coming from the western group of the South Slavic languages; often called Serbo-Croatian. Slovak, Polish, and Czech are also genetically close, especially Czech and Slovak (they were Czechoslovakia for almost a century).
Many people already know how easy it is for a Portuguese person is to understand Spanish or Italian, this is because of their roots in the Latin language. Galician, Spanish, Portuguese, and Ladino are mutually intelligible. Romanian and Moldovan are identical to one another and Italian and Romanian are asymmetrical. Romanians understand Italian better than vice versa which might be because of the Romanian language borrowing certain Slavic words from its neighbors.
The extreme corners of Latin intelligibility are Romanian and French.
The following languages are NOT mutually intelligible with any others: Japanese, Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian.